ARTS & CULTURE
Art is the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual or sound form such as painting, sculpture, sounds, music, animations, media, culinary and more, it is expression by producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty, tastes, feels or emotional power
Applying Arts to global learning to make students – Critical • Creative • Self-aware • Globally aware • Open-minded • Inquisitive • Reflective • Connected • Willing to engage with global challenges • Keen to take action for a better world –
Art therapy is a form of psychotherapy that uses art media as its primary mode of expression and communication. Within this context, art is not used as diagnostic tool but as a medium to address emotional issues which may be confusing and distressing.
Art therapists work with children, young people, adults and the elderly. These include emotional, behavioural or mental health problems, learning or physical disabilities, life-limiting conditions, neurological conditions and physical illnesses.
Although influenced by psychoanalysis, art therapists have been inspired by theories such as attachment-based psychotherapy and have developed a broad range of client-centred approaches such as psycho-educational, mindfulness and mentalization-based treatments, compassion-focussed and cognitive analytic therapies, and socially engaged practice. Importantly, art therapy practice has evolved to reflect the cultural and social diversity of the people who engage in it.
The view that “art is imitation (representation)” has not only been challenged, it has been moribund in at least some of the arts for more than a century. It was subsequently replaced by the theory that art is expression. Instead of reflecting states of the external world, art is held to reflect the inner state of the artist. This, at least, seems to be implicit in the core meaning of “expression”: the outer manifestation of an inner state. Art as a representation of outer existence has been replaced by art as an expression of humans’ inner life.
But the terms “express” and “expression” are ambiguous and do not always denote the same thing. Like so many other terms, “express” is subject to the process–product ambiguity: the same word is used for a process and for the product that results from that process. “The music expresses feeling” may mean that the composer expressed his feeling in writing the music or that the music when heard is expressive (in some way yet to be defined) of human feeling. Based on the first sense are theories about the creation of art. Founded on the second are theories about the content of art and the completion of its creation.
The creation of a work of art is the bringing about of a new combination of elements in the medium (tones in music, words in literature, paints on canvas, and so on). The elements existed beforehand but not in the same combination; creation is the re-formation of these pre-existing materials. Pre-existence of materials holds true of creation quite apart from art: in the creation of a scientific theory or the creation of a disturbance. It applies even to creation in most theologies, except some versions of Christian theology, in which creation is ex nihilo—that is, without pre-existing matter.
That creation occurs in various art mediums is an obvious truth. But once this is granted, nothing has yet been said about expression, and the expressionist would say that the foregoing statement about creation is too mild to cover what he wants to say about the process of artistic creation. The creative process, he wants to say, is (or is also) an expressive process, and for expression something more is necessary than that the artist be creating something. Great care must be taken at this stage: some say that the creation of art is (or involves) self-expression; others say that it is the expression of feeling, though not necessarily of one’s own feeling (or perhaps that and something more, such as the feeling of one’s race, or of one’s nation, or of all humanity); others say that it is not necessarily limited to feelings but that ideas or thoughts can be expressed, as they clearly are in essays. But the distinctively expressionist view of artistic creation is the product of the Romantic movement, according to which the expression of feelings constitutes the creation of art, just as philosophy and other disciplines are the expression of ideas. It is, at any rate, the theory of art as the expression of feelings (which here shall be taken to include emotions and attitudes) that has been historically significant and developed: art as specially connected with the life of feeling.
It is an expanding field of educational research and practice informed by investigations into learning through arts experiences. In this arts context, the arts can include Performing education (dance, drama, music), literature and poetry, storytelling, Visual arts education in film, craft, design, digital arts, media and photography. It is distinguished from art education by being not so much about teaching art, but focused on:
- how to improve learning through the arts.
- how to transfer learning in and through the arts to other disciplines
- discovering and creating understanding of human behaviour, thinking, potential, and learning especially through the close observation of works of art and various forms of involvement in arts experiences
The European Union has funded the ARTinED (a new approach to education using the arts) project to integrate the arts into every primary school subject ARTinED, project based on the practice of the arts in school and non-school environments. The aim of the project is to foster intercultural dialogue, mutual understanding and social inclusion, students who regularly participated in the arts were more likely to:
~ be recognized for academic achievement
~ be elected to class office
~ participate in a math and science fair
Arts involvement is also linked to higher Scholastic Assessment Test scores, lower drop-out rates and increased levels of community service. How do you fit arts activities into your already crowded schedule? Try the suggestions below:
- Have students write a script
This activity can work with almost any subject. In language arts, have students adapt a short story into a script. In history, have students re-create a historical event. In science, students can script a dialogue between different animals, different chemicals, or even different atoms to review content they have learned. By asking students to create and perform a script, you not only expose them to drama, but also force them to think critically about what information to include and how to explain it.
- Have students create a work of art
Ask students to draw or make a collage about a specific topic you are studying. Collage works particularly well with older students who may claim to be “bad at drawing.” The artwork could illustrate the theme of a novel, the culture and environment of a country for social studies, a genus or species in biology, or the ways chemistry affects our daily lives. For older students, political cartoons are another great way to incorporate art with current events or social studies content.
- Have older students use music to “illustrate” a concept
Ask students to use music to create a “soundtrack” for a story, a sequence of historical events, or a biological life cycle. This can be a fascinating way to review and you will quickly recognize which students don’t understand the material. If they play happy music during a tragic period in history, they need to review the content again.
- Have younger students create a “memory dance”
Many songs involve physical movement, from “The Itsy Bitsy Spider” to “YMCA.” Have students work together to create a song that uses physical movement to help them learn a specific concept. This can be a great way to burn off energy in the classroom while still helping students learn the content.
- Take students to see a play that connects to the curriculum
Find out about local live theatre options that may connect to your curriculum. Remember to check local colleges and community theatre groups. Some groups actually have plays specifically designed to meet state curriculum standards.
If your budget is limited, consider having your students read the play in class, or see if a movie has been made of it. Not sure there’s a play that would correspond to your curriculum? There are plays that deal with the signing of the Declaration of Independence (1776), the moral implications of nuclear weapons (Copenhagen), and even Chaos Theory and entropy (Arcadia). Ask an actor, drama teacher, or theatre professor to help you find the right script.
- Have students write a song
For students who are less comfortable with music, tell them to choose an already created tune (like “Happy Birthday or “Jingle Bells”) and just write new lyrics. Then have students write a song about the lesson content. “Schoolhouse Rock” is always a great example, but for a more modern, hip-hop approach, check out the Ron Clark Academy on YouTube. This Atlanta school’s students have been featured on the news and have performed for notorious people. Their original song and dance creations cover topics like the health care debate and the life and accomplishments of Sojourner Truth.
- Have students create a poster, brochure, or advertisement
These can be great alternative assessment products that also teach students about graphic design. that you can use if your own art skills are a little rusty. Evaluate student work on content – which comes from your course – and some graphic design basics from the tutorial. You are giving your students exposure to the arts and some workplace skill development at the same time!
- Use art, music, or dance as a writing prompt
Especially for older children who need writing practice, but get tired of the same old topics, this can be a great way to “sneak in” some arts. Play an instrumental piece of music, especially classical or jazz, and ask students to write about what the music makes them think about or feel. The same can be done with a photograph of a work or art or with a video of dance, especially modern dance or an unfamiliar ballet. This can provoke some interesting writing, and some great classroom conversation.
- Connect math and music
The connections between math and music are well documented, and many outstanding lesson plans exist to help students of all ages recognize the relationship between these two disciplines.
- Teach art, music, dance, or theatre history in your social studies lessons.
Changes in art, music, dance, or theatre reflect societal changes. Take a class period or two to explore the connection between the arts and the content you’re studying. The Federal Theatre Project was a highly controversial part of the WPA in the 1930s – why? How did that reflect the broader discussion about the WPA and the Roosevelt administration? How does the history of popular music in the 20th century reflect the issue of racial integration that became one of America’s largest social movements? How were works of art used as propaganda during the French Revolution? Lesson plans like these are all over the Internet. ArtsEdge and ArtsWork are two good sources.
- Have students create a PSA (Public Service Announcement also known as Lesson Plan)
Have students script, rehearse, and perform a brief commercial. Students could create their own PSA‘s to help them remember content before a test, or could create PSAs connected to an issue they are learning about. In social studies, it’s possible to expand this by providing examples of public safety reminders from previous times in history, such as the posters or film shorts created during World War II to encourage people to buy war bonds or obey rationing guidelines.
- Introduce students to artistic works that match your curriculum
This works especially well for language arts teachers. Mythology and famous stories throughout the centuries have inspired ballets, operas, symphonies, sculptures, and paintings. Incorporate those into your lessons. Show students ancient drawings of Greek mythology and ask them: is this how you imagine Zeus, Hermes or Medusa would look? Why or why not? Have students watch the same scene from the ballet of Romeo and Juliet, a film version of the Shakespeare play, and West Side Story, the 1950s musical based on the play. Ask students to compare and contrast the three versions, then design their own, 21st century version.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ARTS AND CULTURE
Art is a product of a highly creative mind. It includes the creation of images or objects in fields including painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and other visual arts. Culture is the totality of socially transmitted behaviours patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. Culture refers to all the things make up people’s way of life.
Art is one of the most important means of expression developed by human beings. Art is manifested in every aspect of life. Artists have always shown a deep concern about life around them. Many of them have recorded in paintings their observation of people going about their usual ways, performing their usual tasks. Vicente Manansala has painted candle vendors. Among these are representations of rice threshers, cockfighters, candle vendors, street musicians, and children at play. These are called genre paintings. Amorsolo’s Planting Rice, Laundry Women, and Batis. Anita Magsaysay-Ho painted women doing their farm chores. Carlos V. Francisco’s favorite subjects were the fisherfolk and farmers of his hometown, Angono, Rizal, whom he portrayed at work, at play, and in prayer. Honore Daumier also loved to observe the life of his times. He poked fun at the well-to-do in his paintings and drawings, but he portrayed working men and women with compassion. Jean Francois Millet tried to capture in all his paintings the toil and suffering of his fellow peasants. Pieter Brueghel celebrated the peasants, too. Hunters in the Snow and A Country Wedding are two of his famous works.
The relationship between religion and art is not a contradictory relationship, nor an identical one. There exists between them a kinship and a peculiar mutual aid. Both religion and art raise us up and awaken in us a striving towards an ideal world. Common between religion and art is that they both strive to express an idea not in an abstract form (such as in, for example, philosophy and science), but in a concrete visual expression. Art has always been a handmaiden of religion. Most of the world’s religions have used the arts to aid in worship, to instruct, to inspire feelings of devotion, and to impress and convert non-believers. The Christian Church commissioned craftsmen to tell the stories about Christ and the saints in pictures, usually in mosaics, murals, and stained-glass windows in churches. It also resorted to the presentation of tableaux and plays to preach and teach. Some religions expressly forbid the representation of divinity as human beings or animal forms, although they allow the use of some signs or symbols in their place. An interesting work which includes scenes and figures from both Christianity and classical mythology is Michelangelo’s fresco which covers the whole ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
- SCULPTURE Spanish friars introduced the first art form which is religious in nature. They introduced sculpture in the form of religious images or Santo’s to help spread Christianity.
- RELIGIOUS AND LITERARY TEXT The major religions of the world have their scriptures or holy books.
- ARCHITECTURE Art is found in the architecture of religious structures. Religious beliefs influenced traditional art forms that have been part of the lives of ancient Filipinos. Pottery Weaving Wood Carving
- TRADITIONAL FOLK-ART OBJECTS Folk arts are traditional arts made by common people who have had no formal art training, and instead, have practiced art styles and craftsmanship that have been handed through generations. Amulets or anting believed to have supernatural powers and bring religious blessing.
- ART AND BELIEF History consists of verifiable facts and legends of unverifiable ones. History and legend are popular subjects of art. Felix Resurrection Hidalgo, painted the controversial Assassination of Governor-General Fernando Bustamante. Carlos Francisco executed the mural that now graces the second-floor lobby of the Manila City Hall. The mural depicts figures and events in the history of the city. He was also responsible for the huge mural, which was a pageant of Philippine history, for the International Fair held in Manila in 1953. Juan Luna’s Blood Compact, now at Malacañang, commemorates the agreement between Sikatuna and Legazpi which they supposedly sealed by drinking wine in which drops of each other’s blood had been mixed. Spolarium, Luna’s prize-winning painting depicts a scene during the days of the early ROMAN Empire when gladiatorial fights were a popular form of entertainment for the upper class.
- FOLK BELIEFS Some Filipino artists have attempted to render in art not only traditional religious themes but folk beliefs in creatures of lower mythology as well. Solomon Saprid has done statues of the tikbalang, and some painters have rendered their own ideas about the matanda sa punso, asuwang, tianak, and mangkukulam. Malakas and Maganda and Mariang Makiling are among the legendary subjects which have been rendered in painting and sculpture by not a few Filipino artists. The Mariang Makiling theme has been particularly exploited by Francisco and his pupil, Jose V. Blanco, in their paintings.
Artists have lived amidst socio-economic changes that affects their art and life. These changes challenged artists who reacted in different ways. Some used art to vent out their emotions while disregarded the conventions of art and came up with artworks that made statements about the human condition. Economic crisis has resulted to budget cuts in art funding. PORTRAITURE Illustrados commissioned painters to do portraits of their families. Inocencia Francia (1876) by Antonio Malantic Portrait of the Quiason Family by Simon Flores. Some folk-art forms prove to be good sources of income. WOVEN PRODUCTS CARVED FURNITURES Artists enjoy financial stability because of their talents.
Artists can influence the thoughts and actions of people through their art. Visual artists who express their aspiration for a free, just, and sovereign society are called social realist. They create images of protest against injustices and suppression of human rights. There are two basic schools of thought about art’s relationship with politics. One–“art for art’s sake”–sees art purely as an abstract, hermetic expression of the human imagination, with no connection to political or social reality, and to ask art to reflect society is to debase it. The other school advocates political engagement on the part of the artist. This party of engagés, as they are known by the French, believes that art, like all human culture, is an unconscious expression of a society’s unspoken values and that the artists have a responsibility to use their talents to reform society. World War I and World War II are great examples of using art for political reasons. It was propaganda, but politics were involved. Another great example are the posters from the Soviet Union in the 1930s. They used political propaganda to show how Communism was better than Capitalism. Basically, the idea was to demonize the enemy. Every politician is an artist. (It’s not easy to fool a nation without art.) Every artist is not a politician
Technology advanced rapidly in the 20th century. Digital artists use computer graphics software, digital photography, technology, and computer-assisted painting to create art. The relationship between technology and art, has moved from just using technology (for example, Photoshop-like software) to produce art to technology as a component of an art piece. Photography took a long time to be accepted as an art form. And this fact may seem strange to a lot of us now. Artists have been producing art using technology since the 1960s. Jean Tinguely is one sculptor, who focused on making metallic, mechanical sculptures, that could move, designed to destroy itself (Homage to New York, 1960). Robert Rauschenberg was another artist, filled an aluminium tank with mud, put an apparatus underneath it, to make bubbles on the mud, synchronised with sounds, played on the site (Mud Muse, 1971). Special effects are a technical advancement in film making can make huge sandstorms without losing lives.
Geographical location and climate affected the development of art and culture. There are similarities in the art forms found in the Bicol region, Palawan, Panay, Negros, Western Mindanao, and in the coastal areas of the country. Indigenous people living in the remote areas were able to preserve their indigenous arts. A work of art is man-made, and although it may closely resemble nature, it can never duplicate nature. The closest that we can get to doing this is with a camera. But even then, a photograph is only a record of the subject or the scene. Modernization and globalization have brought changes to the art world. Migration has allowed artists to interact across the globe. Determine what aspect in life is being shown in the following masterpieces. 1. a painting of children at play 2. stories of Christ and the saints in pictures 3. sculpture of Malakas and Maganda 4. mural of rallies’ 5. wedding pictures Determine the following: a. functions of art b. modern and contemporary art styles.
Every culture has a unique food philosophy. The way we cook our food tells a lot about who we are. Food is a universal necessity. But it is only human beings who endeavour to transform food into something more. Several archaeologists and evolutionary biologists contend that cooking was, and still is, crucial to our evolution. Not only did it stimulate mastery over fire and necessitated innovation in tool making, but by eating cooked food, we were able to increase our energy output for other creative pursuits. The preparing and sharing of food came to define relationships within families as well as in the larger community. Food became central to community celebrations. Cooking the most versatile art form and in a way, a spiritual activity. Unlike other artistic mediums, it has the capacity to engage all the senses. Chefs have long known that the presentation of a dish is as important as the taste, aroma and texture of what is served. However, recent research shows that sound, too, is a critical element in creating the right dining experience. Cooking is perhaps the highest form of meditation, a divine ritual that is key to nourishing the soul and balancing the cosmic forces of yin and yang.
FUNDINGS & SPONSORSHIPS
The arts and culture are often neglected by local councils and governments who are often obliged to deal with social obligations which leave little resources to finance projects in the field of art and culture.
All the arts are a fundamental part of our European heritage, expression and culture.
Therefore, it is important to access the resources available and develop innovative cross border projects to inspire and stimulate appreciation of Art and Culture for the benefit of employment and opportunity within the fields of the different Arts.
The location of our new office will facilitate collaboration for funding and participations for art and cultural events such as concerts and theatrical events exhibitions.